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​Basic knowledge of USB Cable

2021-8-10 18:55:34

Basic concept of USB cord

Basic knowledge of USB Charger cable

Wires are the carriers of electric energy, heat and signals

Sinodec Industrial Co., Ltd. is a proffessional USB Customized cable factory in China, we began this business from 2003, our main products are USB micro-b cable, USB3.1, 3.0 Type-C cable, mobile phone accesories, USB charger  adapter, CE, Rohs and UL certified.

In 1744, the German scientist J. Winkler realized the remote transmission of electric energy through wires. The first wire came out. We generally refer to the wires for electrical equipment. The cable industry is an industry with a particularly complete range of subdivisions. Industrial cables,  Consumer cables are just a big category, and there are special cables and so on.

The distinction between wires and cables:

Basic knowledge of wire (cable white paper)

In fact, there is no strict boundary between "wire" and "cable". Usually, products with fewer cores, small product diameters, and simple structure are called wires, those without insulation are called bare wires, and the others are called cables with larger conductor cross-sectional area.  The ones (greater than 6 square millimeters) are called large cables, the smaller ones (less than or equal to 6 square millimeters) are called small cables, and insulated cables are also called cloth wires.

The structure of the wire

Basic knowledge of wire (cable white paper)

Wire composition:

Basic knowledge of wire (cable white paper)

Conductors generally include: copper wire, aluminum wire, copper clad steel, iron wire, copper foil wire (Tinsel), etc.;

Insulation generally includes: PVC, PE, PP, TEFLON, TPU, TPE, FPE, etc.;

The sheath generally includes: PVC, PU, PA, neoprene, mica tape, ceramics, etc.;

Protective layer: armor (steel pipe), ceramics, polyester fiber, woven mesh, etc.

Copper wire requirements

Basic knowledge of wire

Copper wires generally include: stranded wire (Strand), single stranded wire (Solid), tinned wire, aluminum wire, enameled wire, stranded and plated wire, copper foil wire (Tinsel);

Multi-strand wire: the most commonly used, most wires use multi-strand wire, mainly due to the following reasons:

■Easy to extrude, make the wire soft;

■Increase the heat dissipation area;

■Increase tensile strength, increase bending strength;

■Reduce loss; (In large cross-section power cables, there is no need to split conductors, because of the skin effect and proximity effect, the current resistance of the cable will increase, and the current carrying capacity will decrease)

Common copper wire code meaning:

■Bare copper wire BA.AS or CU;

■ Tinned wire TAS, TCU or TS;

■Twisted first and then plated TC-T;

■ Copper foil wire (TSL);

■Copper-clad steel CCS, tinned copper-clad steel CP;

■ Copper-clad aluminum CCA, copper-clad aluminum-magnesium CCAM, etc.;

■Silver-plated copper wire SC;

■ Silver-plated copper clad steel SCCS;

Insulation sheath and outer quilt

Basic knowledge of wire

Insulation and outer coverings mainly play a protective role. Plasticizers, flame retardants, antioxidants, coupling agents, anti-aging agents, and anti-ultraviolet agents are added to PVC to make outer coverings bear different effects.

The insulation thickness is different, the voltage resistance level is different: (1mil=1/1000inch=0.0254mm)

■Thickness is less than 15mil, used for below 150V such as UL1571

■Thickness is less than 30mil, used for below 300V such as UL1007

■Thickness is less than 45mil, used for below 600V such as UL1015

Basic knowledge of wire

The heat resistance rating refers to the temperature that the guide body heats up to a certain temperature and withstands within a certain period of time. It does not refer to the environmental temperature resistance. For example, UL1015 can withstand a temperature of 105'C, and it cannot work for a long time at a temperature of 105'C. Generally, ordinary PVC wire can withstand  Temperature 80'C (such as UL1007, UL2464, etc.), can reach 105'C after adding flame retardant (such as UL1015, UL1672, etc.)

When the insulation is XLPVC (cross-linked polyvinyl chloride), it can reach 105'C-125'C, such as UL1430, UL1431;

When the insulation is XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene), it can reach 125'C, such as UL3271, UL3266, etc.;

When the insulation is silicone rubber, it can reach 150'C, such as UL3122, UL3135, etc.;

The insulation is tetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON), which can reach 200'C~260'C, such as 1330, etc.;

MI cable (mineral insulated cable), which is made of copper core, copper sheath, and magnesium oxide insulation. It has good fire resistance and can work for a long time below 250°C;

The above-mentioned wires are temperature-resistant wires, but they cannot be burnt in fire. Some special wires are covered with a layer of mica tape and can work for 90 minutes at a high temperature above 800°C. They are called true fire-resistant cables.

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